There are 6 different continents in Victoria 2.
If a great power tries to influence another nation on another continent, their progress will be delayed by 50%. If a great power does not show interest in a crisis on their own continent, they will lose prestige. If it is on another continent, the great power can freely choose to engage or not.
Victoria 2 has the following continents:
Africa is the continent with the most uncolonized land. Most of the countries in Africa are uncivilized. Only Oranje and Transvaal are civilized in 1836. Sokoto, Zulu, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, Egypt, Liberia, Madagascar and Ethiopia are all independent uncivilized nations. Arabia can be formed by north African states.
United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Spain, Portugal, the Ottoman Empire and the Netherlands have small colonies in Africa and on the surrounding islands. From approximately 1870, when Machine Guns are researched, Britain and France along with the other European nations will start to colonize, controlling all of Africa in a few decades.
The most powerful and notable nations in Asia are China, Japan, Panjab and Persia. But several other nations will do fine should they manage to westernize. Asia is also dominated by several European nations. United Kingdom has control over India, and The Netherlands and Spain have a fair share of South-East Asia. A large part of Russia and The Ottoman Empire is located in Asia.
There are several provinces in Central Asia and Siberia that are open for colonization and will almost certainly be snapped up by Russia.
Europe is, in 1836, the most powerful continent in Victoria 2 and a focal point of the game. It will likely experience the most wars. It holds 7 of the 8 initial great powers and several secondary powers. United Kingdom, France, Prussia, Russia, Austria, The Ottoman Empire, Netherlands and Spain all have their capitals in Europe.
North America starts off in 1836 with the independent countries of the USA, Mexico, Texas, Hawaii and the United States of Central America. Russia, Spain and United Kingdom hold colonies in the North American region as well in Canada, the Caribbean and Alaska. Cuba, Canada, Deseret, Californian Republic, Costa Rica, Cherokee, Manhattan Commune and Newfoundland are releasable nations, while the Confederate States of America will form via the Civil War event chains.
The typical wars in North America are the Texan Independence War, The American-Mexican War and the American Civil War. Due to the American Civil War, the CSA is independent from the "A House Divided" bookmark in 1861.
Every nation in North America gets a 10% bonus to Immigrant Attraction and assimilation., resulting in population booms in most of these countries.
South America is a continent south of North America. The countries in South America are Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. United Kingdom, Netherlands and France have colonies on the continent. Brazil starts as a secondary power and is the continent's most powerful nation.
All the countries with their capital in South America share many of the same problems and difficulties. Lack of population, low literacy and behind in tech.
Many countries have cores on the same land, which results in many wars. Brazil is particularly militaristic. Every country in South America receives a 10% bonus to immigration attraction and assimilation, which is a great boon for players in South America.
Oceania is the only continent in the game where there isn't a single independent nation. Great Britain controls most of it, as they have Australia and New Zealand under their control. The continent consists of scattered islands, many of which are uncolonized at the start of the game. This is the least populated part of the world and has numerous disadvantages.