|Government type||Absolute Monarchy|
|Ruling party||Conservative Party (conservative)|
|Capital||Urga (ID 1465)|
By 1836 the former empire of Mongolia had become a sub-state of China. Historically, during the time-period of the game, Mongolia was ruled by the Qing dynasty until 1911, and gained independence from China shortly after the Russian Revolution in the early 1920s and maintained strong ties with the USSR until the 1990s and the dissolution of the USSR. 
Playing Mongolia in AHD or HOD requires a good slice of fortune cookie and is not for the easily frustrated.
Your primary goal is to westernise. As a sub-state you have no control of your diplomacy and are unable to go to war. If China westernizes before Mongolia, it will be annexed, but if Mongolia manages to do it first, they will become fully independent. China will however still have cores on Mongolia, so if you manages to break free expect warfare.
So purposefully getting reactionary rebels is not really an option.
Mongolia has a population of 600,000, and its only accepted culture is Mongol, which is tiny compared to the other Chinese states. The population has a literacy rate of 4.3%. Tax income is very low, however, your outgoings are also very low, especially if you reduce all your military costs to zero. All in all the situation is very bleak.
Russia will gain a core on your province of Sofianova, although it is sparsely populated, they may go to war over this province at any time. Unfortunately, you are at the mercy of your Chinese masters as far as fighting this war is concerned.
It is advisable to maximise taxes on all your population for the time being. Military investment can be ignored and is best left at zero for the initial stages of the game at least until you approach westernisation. Tariffs can be used to make sure you run a small surplus. Taxes should be maximised as much as possible as long your POPs are getting their needs met, to aid clergy promotion middle taxes should be the lowest.
Setting the education budget to maximum will help gradually increase your educational efficiency. It is advisable to use your NF to promote clergy from the beginning of the game until you have 4% throughout your population - 2% for research and the further 2% to maximise educational efficiency.
Until westernisation there is nothing to do as regards industry except making sure your population is as literate as possible in order to help promote POPs to clerks and craftsmen.
In the initial stages of the game, you are safe to disband all your military and make no investment into it. Your low population means you can barely field 4 brigades, and to do so would require the vast majority of your budget.
Expect the unexpected
There are a couple of issues that a player need to be aware of, and this applies to many low population nations, not just Mongolia.
Firstly, the epidemic events such as Cholera and Influenza can completely decimate your population, at best stalling your progress for a couple of years, to at worst nearly wiping out whole sections of your population rendering your game nearly unplayable.
Secondly, with the risk of reactionary rebellions it is often good idea, albeit gamey, to store your research points after taking Land Reform and take the rest of your westernisation reforms in one go. The reason being is that if you lose your capital to a rebellion and they enforce their demands by removing 2 of your reforms, this can set you back 20–30 years. Once you have westernised, a lost rebellion merely results in the loss of a few social/political reforms, and in the early post-westernisation stage you will not have passed any reforms.
Even a westernized and independent Mongolia will be severely threatened by China, even if they are still primitive. Therefore getting a strong ally is key. If Mongolia is lucky, they have been sphered by Russia in the process of westernizing. If that is the case, you should use that alliance to attack China, their substates or Korea.