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Government type Democracy
Ruling party Partido Conservador (conservative)
Capital Mexico City (ID 2172)
Population 1.78 Million
Primary culture Mexican
Accepted cultures Mayan
Religion Catholic.pngcatholic
Literacy 12.4%
National value Liberty
Tech school Traditional Academia
Status Secondary power
Mexico in 1836 was a lot larger than today

Mexico is a secondary power in North America. It has both Mexican and Mayan as accepted POPs. Mexico has a high immigration rate, a relatively large initial population and plenty of Precious metal.pnggold. On face value it could look like a promising start, but there are multiple issues lurking. Unfortunately, Mexico starts at war with Texas Texas where USA USA has the possibility to intervene and Mexico has an inadequate army to match the United States.

In addition to these issues, Mexico controls area where cores of the United States of America will be created after Manifest Destiny, which usually leads to a war that Mexico will lose without wise leadership.

Mexico has the unique decision Restore the Mexican Empire, which changes the government to HM's Government instead of Democracy if there is sufficient conservative POPs. Additionally Mexico has four unique events, all related to the Mexican Revolution of 1910.:

Opening Moves - Ending the Texan Rebellion & Stopping The USA

One has to balance Mexico's budget with education, military and Navy being the main expenditures. It is advised to cut back on the navy, possibly disbanding it temporarily.

It is advised to place the two National Focuses on Clergymen mini.pngClergy in Zacatecas and Mexico, the two largest states. The population is heavily concentrated in these states with the North and the west being mostly empty prarries.

Mexico can from day 1 send colonial expeditions to Oklahoma and potentially create a protectorate. Racing the USA for colonies however can cause problems, so it might be better to back out. USA will usually be preoccupied with colonising Washington and Oregon, so it should be possible to colonise Oklahoma before USA turns towards it. It does however require that Mexico remains a secondary power until the colony is fully established, and since Mexico starts at the critical 16th place, it is not a given. Unlike Great power status, secondary power can be lost in a day without warning.

Modernizing the army and getting rid of Irregular.pngirregulars might be a good idea. If one plans to colonize Oklahoma or Oregon, it should however be done gradually as to not lose secondary power status by lowering the military score.

Messing With Texas

Beating Texas isn't hard. It is keeping the US out of the war that's hard. Once the US enters the war, you will most likely lose. USA starts with a friendly status with Texas, so they can intervene as soon as Mexico have a warscore of 1 or higher.

There are overall five approaches to the war: 1) The gamey approach 2) The luck based approach 3) Beating the US 4) The suicide mission 5) Giving up

Five is self-explanatory. Give up Texas. What one should keep in mind is that USA cannot enact Manifest Destiny if Mexico owns Houston, Texas. After the war Texas will without a doubt join USA with the Apply for Statehood decision giving it American cores and paving the way for Manifest Destiny. On the other hand, if Mexico wins the war it will most likely not have problems with USA coming back for it.

The gamey option

The first option involves deliberately losing battles and territory to the Texans. The point is that USA cannot intervene if Texas is fighting for its own war goal. Slowly modernize the army by recruiting as many squads of infantry as possible while you carry out the first parts of the strategy.

Texas is cautious and defensive minded, so one have to drive Mexicos armies towards Texas one at the time.

After losing one of the Austin battles, the Texans will chase the group of troops that lost into a territory you own and finish them in another battle, and will begin occupying the region after the battle. Allow them to occupy it.

The entire point of this exercise is to get a negative war score with Texas and get them to add a war goal. Once they have added a war goal, the USA can't join the war. This entire process will be slow, mostly in the first phase of building up negative war score, and will take about a year or two.

Once you have initially overwhelmed the Texan army, don't let up. If you haven't completely demolished them in the initial battle, chase them until they are eliminated. Once they are gone, split your army to occupy all of Texas (don't worry about the war score, even when its positive the USA still can't join due to Texas's war goal), and accept the peace offer to annex Texas.

The Luck Based Option

In short, if someone, like the UK, attacks the US, they will be too busy invading Canada to pay attention to Texas. It is pure luck and very very unlikely. Other form of lucky win is proposing an alliance to UK, they will sometimes accept, so you can form an alliance and take them in the war and US will not intervene. It is however very unlikely that UK accept the alliance first and even more unlikely they will answer the call.

Beating the US and Texas

The easiest way to do this is to start as though one were doing the gamey option by losing a few battles while recruiting some regular Infantry.pnginfantry. You will ideally be at -4% warscore by the time the infantry comes up. Now crush the Texan army. If you got your WS properly down, you'll eliminate the army in a few battles and still have negative WS. Spread your army out and begin your occupations at around the same time.

When Mexico enters into a positive war score, and the US enters the war. BUT, it takes them time to gear up and move their army to the mexican borders. One can finish the occupations and annex Texas. Now fight defensively, building up war score until the US accepts a white peace. It is very difficult to do however.

The Absolutely Insane 'Suicide Mission' option

You can try, what seems like, the stupidest thing you could possibly do: Fabricate a casus belli on USA and attack them. The idea is that if USA is already at war with Mexico, they cannot intervene in the Texan war. You would probably have to give up something like humiliate or cut down to size however.

You can prepare by colonizing Oregon or Colorado, hoping that the US will take those colonies and peace out with minimal losses.

Technically there is also the 6th option that one can wait until either USA drops to secondary power or Texas rises to great power. Both scenarios are very unlikely and is not really a possibility.

Mid Game (1840-1870)

Now that the war is over, one can start prioritizing Bureaucrats mini.pngbureaucrats and Clergymen mini.pngclergy on the cost of the army.

Diplomatically, Mexico has to be on the good side of the US and the UK. Accept alliance offers from both, this will buy you time and protection during this phase and delay the confrontation with the US. If Texas is annex, Mexico will most likely just end up in USAs sphere. If Manifest Destiny happens, it will remove 500 american influence in Mexico, which is more than enough to move it from sphered to neutral at once. So getting sphered by USA is no safeguard against the American invasion.

USCA USCA is a good target of Conquest if one has not grown tired of war yet. It holds more Mayan pop in Guatemala Guatemala, which is accepted in Mexico. Otherwise Haiti Haiti or Hawaii Hawaii could be targets. The first have valuable Tobacco.pngtobacco, and the later gives a starting point to colonizing pacific islands in a few decades. Neither of them starts with allies or in a sphere, but they will quickly end in USAs fold and be practically impossible to attack.

Now one has two build up a sufficient industry. For that one needs a better literacy which needs investment. One does probably also need to actitively invest in factories as Mexico lacks Capitalists mini.pngcapitalists.

Mexico has a frankly terrible literacy rate, and it lacks many techs that other civilized countries start with. Education, especially early on with a clergy promotion focus, will start to slowly raise the literacy acquisition rate. A focus on this early will boost your research later. In technology one can prioritize culture and production, with education and research boosting techs the priority. An additional national focus early might be a good idea. If Mexico has won the war against Texas, military tech is not really a necessity early.

The American Civil war

In the American Civil War, Mexico could try to ally up with Confederate States of America Confederate States of America. If it gains independence it means a much weaker USA; a weaker USA means a stronger Mexico. A potential ally at the borders of the USA will help when/if the Manifest Destiny happens. Unfortunately, the CSA often loses the war, but a Mexican ally can be just tip the scales in its favor.

Alternatively one can attack CSA during the Civil war and finish it before USA manages to end the war. USA will need close to 100 war score which usually requires close to a complete occupation to force the war goal, so there is plenty of time. The CSA troops will certainly have more than enough on their hands, so the war in itself is easy to win. The only thing one has to watch out for is not getting too greedy with additional war goals, so that it can be over before USA has sufficient war score. There is a catch however: USA will have cores on all provinces, Mexico takes from CSA.


At some point in the 1870s and 1880s, one should be open to looking beyond the Americas. You should have researched the prerequisite techs for colonisation (Machine Guns, Nationalism & Imperialism, Post-Nelsonian Thought & Medicine), as well as built up naval bases along the Pacific coast (since ports along your Atlantic coast would still be too far for African colonies. The military annexations of Hawaii Hawaii and Brunei Brunei would also help, with the established of naval ports for resupplying your transports and giving access for colonizing.

One does also have to keep a secondary power place.

The establishment of colonial expeditions should prioritise Borneo, given its Tropical wood.pngtropical wood and Coffee.pngcoffee RGOs as well as potential Resource oil.pngoil and Resource rubber.pngrubber RGOs in the late game. The Hawaiian islands not yet claimed is second priority; these would allow for an expanded supply range for your navy as well a steady supply of Fish.pngfish (for the Resource canned food.pngCanned Food goods your military needs). If the one colonial province in North Borneo is unclaimed, one should also aim to colonise this territory for neater borders, although it would be ill-advised to risk a colonial crisis with other great powers over one province.

Conquest of other Asian uncivs which have yet to be sphered would also help, provided there are any by the time you reach Asia. In lieu of targets to launch a war of conquest (which would cost up to 22 infamy for civilised states), Mexican players should look to invest in the Market Functionality technologies boosting your Diplomatic Influence, so as to add Asian nations to your Sphere of Influence (giving you access to their RGOs and opening up potential alliances.)

Late Game: Struggle with the United States (1870-?)

Depending on whether you retain Texas or not, the late game would look very different. Should Austin fall out of your hands and the Manifest Destiny decision fire, watch out. If Mexico manages to keep hold of Austin, then one can evade all the trouble.

Screw Fate: Defy the Manifest Destiny

From the minute the Manifest Destiny decision fires, or before that if you get enough time, you should aim to have a large modern army, established high-level fortifications, defensive positions and a significant navy (with enough capital ships to match the American fleet). Owing to the immigration bonuses the USA gets, the Americans will outnumber you.

Before they invade, establish a good relationship with the United Kingdom United Kingdom and maybe France France. While the US tends to bowl over their sparse colonial forces in Canada and the UK never brings its full weight to bear on the war, they make an excellent distraction that gives you a much better shot. You'll still be outnumbered, but it will not be as bad and you'll have better odds.

Fight defensively and carefully; pick battles in states where you can reduce the combat width and maximise your damage. Tack bonuses as much as possible. Rack up war score and War exhaustion via occupying states with high population and naval blockades. If you can get a successful "Cut Down to Size" peace negotiation, it will be a major boost financially (due to war reparations) and give you a decade of peace. White peaces are easier to reach, but this means a war roughly every 5 years, more or less.

You can sometimes make the US be more wary of Attacking you every five years if your military score is near theirs, leading to deterrence. Allying with other Great Powers may also help.

Since Mexico has more territory than it can fill with pops and factories anyway, and since it can easily become Great Power as is, one may be compelled to see territorial expansion as unnecessary, and overly risky for limited gains. If you do want to expand, however, this is the time to do it: during truces with the US. The USCA, the Pacific, and the Caribbean tend to be the best bets.

If you want to end the endless wars against the US, you'll need to dismantle the thing: look towards freeing the CSA (who retain their cores even in the common event of their loss in the Civil War), take Oregon and Washington, and see what else you can do to diminish them once and for all.

Other options for dismembering the now-Divided States of America include freeing the Manhattan Commune Manhattan Commune and the Cherokee Cherokee, as freeing nations will result in less infamy for you while denying the USA their high-industry provinces to weaken their economy. Furthermore, as these states fall under your sphere of influence, they will help increase your industrial score and pops greatly, boosting your score and international standing.

Death of Continentalism

In the event you retain Austin and Manifest Destiny does not fire, this frees up resources and opens up more opportunities for you, as the United States is significantly less likely to invade. However, this does not preclude conflict, as competition for influence in Latin America and industry on the world state would prompt tensions.

At this stage you should either be a Great Power in your own right or an industrial secondary power utilizing the American sphere of influence for cheap industrial goods. Either way, the Mexican Cession is not likely to happen either by arms or gold.

Warmonger Mexico guide

First thing first, you need to beat USA in the Texas war.

For opening move. Use the National Focus to increase Bureaucrats mini.pngbureaucrats. This increases the amount of tariff you receive, decreases the cost of various maintenance and government purchases, and speeds up the rate of pops promotions and demotions! What you want is 100% state efficiency which means 1% bureaucrats at the start of the game! Thus the most populous state is most cost-effective for NF in that regard.

Try to fund 100% education and 100% administration. The starting army upkeep can be lowered. 100% tax and 100% tariff are strongly suggested.

Military, disband your navy, they won't be needed. Disband your irregular and recruit a proper army. You start with 10 possible brigades, one of them is nahua which will be soon low on soldiers. Consider that be an artillery unit. Do not mobilize until your recruitment is complete. You need your whole army ready to be able to face up with USA. Let Texas siege up provinces in the meantime.

Colonize Oregon instead of inland provinces. Oregon is a possible port which is more valuable than the two contestable inland spots.

When the army is assembled with the 5 conscripts, organize them into two stacks, one of them is heavy on artillery (1 to 1 artillery- front unit ratio). Begin by liberate the occupied provinces and defeat the Texas army, then siege up Texas then. USA should intervene as soon as warscore is in your favor. US army will invade from the extreme west. Ignore them until you annex Texas. USA should have 3 stacks, your next objective would be the destruction of those stacks. One of them, the conscripts should come from the east, that could be the first one to go down. Use bait and reinforcement tactics. The artillery stack should be the bait, because the artillery from the reinforcement won't deploy correctly in the back, I found out. The Rocky mountains, Utah-Nevada are perfect defensive battle places. Against conscripts, you can go on offensive with the artillery army. Be careful to not overcommit your army, let them rest a month-end if they are low on strength. As soon as US army is destroyed, USA will accept a white peace. It is now up to you to agree or to press on.

Arguments against pressing on

With Texas secured, USA will be unable to use Manifest Destiny. USA might ally with you some time, and you have secured a friend instead of an enemy. Also, you should have 20-40% war exhaustion from that war when you finally destroyed the US Army. War exhaustion is good for militancy if you want to be a HM government and have reforms early, but is seen to be generally bad on the economy. Also, there is not a lot of good war goals to be added against US. Taking any province from US will make it certain, that you have to face them again.

When the war is over, you should have achieved 1% national bureaucrats ratio. Now switch to clergy and increase it up to 4% for maximal literacy gains. Then to Soldiers mini.pngsoldiers to bolster the military score. When war exhaustion is nearly gone, build clippers and prepare for colonization warfare. Sokoto Sokoto, Zulu Zulu, Sindh Sindh, Johore Johore are all good targets. The Populous colonies provide soldiers who can turn into military score, furthering your rank in the world. USA will try sphere you when the truce is up. But, by that time, Mexico should be soon a GP.

Post-Great power warmongering

When you are a Great Power, plan ahead, research the naval bases tech earlier in order to have time to build them. Try to not get into useless war with other GP. The good sphering targets include obviously Brazil Brazil. Netherlands Netherlands and Spain Spainish colonies in Americas are also good targets, but prepare to fight with influence points in those countries. Uncivs will sometime kick your ambassador out, which can be annoying if that is a Vietnam allied with China. You will be able to fight China with almost only starting military tech.

For the Panama canals, usually USA and UK will fight in influence in Colombia, get in there just after one nation discredits the other.

The world is your stage, don't count on too much on immigrants when you see USA having so much of them on their side. Brazil, Colombia Colombia, Uruguay Uruguay and even sometimes Haiti Haiti will be preferred to Mexican gold mines. Anyway, the world is now the Mexican stage (bolstered with African and possibly Chinese peasants, like any of blobbing games), do as you fit.